The findings in this study suggest that people with persistent arm pain (with a mean duration of almost 2 years) and signs which can be associated with neurological deficits after a whiplash injury, seem to both tolerate and benefit from neck-specific exercise. The NSE group reported the lowest levels of maximum and minimum arm pain (with the highest level of pain-free participants) and the lowest frequencies of arm paraesthesia after 3 months. The proportion of participants with at least 50% pain reduction, indicating clinically relevant “substantial improvement” according to IMMPACT39, further supports the results of the NSE exercise where this level of improvement was reported in about 50% of the participants. The NSE group was also the only group with an increase of participants (additional 25%) with pain-free intervals. To sometimes be pain-free as opposed to having constant pain, may allow for temporary recuperation and can be associated with possibilities of further pain relief35.